John XXIII, after being threatened with an investigation of his life, promised to resign if his rivals would do the same. Shortly after, however, he fled from Constance, hoping that this act would deprive the council of its power and lead to its dissolution. The emperor insisted that the council continue, and it issued the decree Sacrosanctaaffirming that a general council of the church is superior to the pope.
Significance of the term II. Low ebb of Catholic fortunes III. Ignatius and the Jesuits, pioneers of the new movement IV. The Council of Trent V. Three great reforming popes VI. Close of the period and retrospect. The name, though long in use among Protestant historians, has only recently been introduced into Catholic handbooks.
The consequence is that it already has a meaning and an application, for which a word with a different nuance should perhaps have been chosen. For in the first place the name suggests that the Catholic movement came after the Protestant ; whereas in truth the reform originally began in the Catholic Churchand Luther was a Catholic Reformer before he became a Protestant.
By becoming a Protestant Reformerhe did indeed hinder the progress of the Catholic reformation, but he did not stop it.
It continued to gain headway in the Catholic South until it was strong enough to meet and roll back the movement from the North. Even if our Catholic reform had been altogether posterior to the Protestantwe could not admit that our reform movement owed its motive power or its line of action to the latter, in the way that modern reform movements among Orientals are due to the influence of European thought.
For the principles of the Protestant Reformation are to Catholics principles leading to deformation and to the perpetuation of abuses, such as the subservience of Church to State, or the marriage of the clergyto say nothing of doctrinal error.
Both the continuance and correction of the same abuse cannot be due to the same movement. Moreover, it will be seen that the Catholic reform was not even originally due to reaction from Protestantismin the way In which inert nations are sometimes spurred by initial defeats to increased energy, which In the end may even make them victorious.
The Causes and Effects Causes of the Protestant Reformation Connections Today Long-Term Causes - Roman Catholic Church becomes more worldly - Humanists urge a return to simple religion. The term “Protestant” first appeared in , when Charles V revoked a provision that allowed the ruler of each German state to choose whether they would enforce the Edict of Worms. Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character.
Though this reaction undoubtedly had its effect on certain Catholic reformers, it had little or no influence on the leaders or on the best representatives of the movement, as, for instance, on St. Ignatius, its pioneer, or on St.
Philip Neri and St. Vincent de Paulexemplars of its maturity. Another point to be noticed is that, though we assign certain dates for the beginning and end of the period under consideration, there has never been any break in the striving of the Church against the heresies which arose in the sixteenth century.
In this sense the Counter-Reformation began in the time of Luther and is not even yet closed. But while the points of similarity between this period and those which preceded and followed it might be dwelt upon at some length, and must occasionally be called to mind, there is no reason for rejecting the term, or for denying that it corresponds with a real and important historical period.
Historical periods, it will be remembered, are never sharply cut off, during the actual course of events, from what goes before and comes after, as they are described in books; for history in the concrete is always continuous.
In this case the limits of the period are to be measured not by reversals of reforming policy and methods, but by the increased or decreased energy with which such reformation is pursued.
When there is intense zeal on the part of many for making reforms, then is the "period" of reform. Similarly this "period" ceases when such zeal becomes rare, or only mediocre in intensity, even though it does really continue here and there in some individuals or classes. It would be a misrepresentation of the heroes of the Counter-Reformation to describe their reforms as having differed from those of the older opponents of Protestantismexcept in degree, in earnestness, thoroughness, adaptability to altered circumstances, etc.
Their predecessors had been clear in the condemnation and punishment of error.Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul.
Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character.
The subject will be considered under the following heads: The span of time during which this enthusiasm lasted may be justly considered as an historical period, and it is that which we call the period of the Counter-Reformation. It may also be well to note at the outset that this period is the.
As a result of the Reformation, Christendom was broken into two areas: Protestant and Catholic. National churches were established, including the Church of England, that still stand today. Counter-reformation attempts by the Catholic Church resulted in persecution of Protestants, many of which fled their European origins to make a new life in the New World.
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that occurred in Western Europe during the 16th century that resulted in a divide in Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants. This movement "created a North-South split in Europe, where generally Northern countries became Protestant, while Southern countries remained Catholic.".
Sep 28, · ¨The Protestant Reformation was caused by Martin Luther, during the 16th century.¨The Reformation did not occur in orthodox Christianity in Russia or what was left of the Byzantine empire in. Jul 31, · The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation.
The most traumatic era in the entire history of Roman Catholicism, some have argued, was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th.