Distilled wateronce carbon dioxide is removed, has a neutral pH of 7.
The program did not begin immediately, but was implemented in two stages: To achieve these reductions bywhen a nationwide sulfur dioxide emissions cap of 8. The operation and pricing of a market for emissions allowances would not be viable in the absence of an effective regulatory cap on the total number of allowances available.
Scope of Phase I requirements[ edit ] In Phase I, half the total reductions were required by January 1,largely by requiring electric power generating plants units in 21 states to cut sulfur dioxide emission rates to 2.
Each of these generating units was identified by name and location, and a quantity of emissions allowances was specified in the statute in tons of allowable SO2 emissions per year.
This legitimized a market for sulfur dioxide emissions allowances, administered by the Chicago Board of Trade. Nitrogen oxide reduction[ edit ] The Amendments also required reductions in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions at Phase I units.
The key factors in NOx formation are flame temperature and oxygen levels present for combustion. Low-NOx burner technology was readily available, and considerably less expensive than installation of scrubbers,  so control of NOx was considered less demanding by most electric utilities.
Compliance strategies[ edit ] The market based SO2 allowance trading component of the Acid Rain Program was intended to allow utilities to adopt the most cost effective strategy to reduce SO2 emissions. Every Acid Rain Program operating permit outlines specific requirements and compliance options chosen by each source.
Affected utilities also were required to install systems that continuously monitor emissions of SO2, NOx, and other related pollutants in order to track progress, ensure compliance, and provide credibility to the trading component of the program.
Monitoring data is transmitted to EPA daily via telecommunications systems. Strategies for compliance with air quality controls have been major components of electric utility planning and operations since the mids, affecting choice of fuels, technologies and locations for construction of new generating capacity.
Some coal cleaning may occur in combination with other actions such as scrubbing, or blending coals with varying sulfur content, but utilities generally prefer that coal suppliers bear the costs of cleaning operations. Because it takes 3—5 years to design and build a scrubber at an existing coal-fired unit, and longer to repower or build a new facility e.
Delays in allocating "early scrub" bonus credits and scheduling of the first auction of emissions allowances in March  effectively removed these incentives from actual compliance decision making of most electric utilities.
Because of the time it takes to build air pollution control equipment, financial and contractual commitments to scrubbers had to be made by summer if plant modifications were to be operational in time to meet new standards in Thus, decisions had to be made before price and allocation of emissions allowances were known.
Consequently, most scrubber projects to meet the deadline were well under way by fall of Windfalls[ edit ] Of the units at plant locations affected by Phase I emission limitations, five were oil-fired, five coal-fired units were retired, and one coal-fired unit was placed on cold standby status prior to passage of the legislation in The 6 inactive coal-fired units were statutory recipients of a total of 36, tons of Phase I sulfur dioxide emissions allowances.
This marketable windfall was estimated by the U. Location of generating units[ edit ] Excluding those 11 units, active coal-fired units at plants in 21 states were subject to Phase I sulfur dioxide emissions reductions in States having the greatest number of generating units affected by the Phase I requirements were: The average age of 35 coal-fired units retired during was Several had been on standby e.
About half often the older units were designed to "cofire" with natural gas or fuel oil, and could be operated using these fuels instead of coal if desired.
Both the number and average age of coal-fired units retired increased substantially from toindicating utilities were removing very old units from available status that they no longer expected to use, thereby avoiding maintenance costs necessary to keep them on standby.
For comparison, the 6 Phase I coal units retired before ranged in age from 21—35 years when taken out of service, with a mean of 31 years.
All of the Phase I units were either built or under construction when the Clean Air Act of was enacted, and all but eight were built or under construction when the Act was enacted. Consequently, these units were built when labor costs were significantly less than in the s, and they avoided major investments in pollution control equipment.
In the s, these units were often among the least expensive of any operated by their respective owners, in terms of cost per megawatt-hour of energy produced.
Compared to other plants on a utility company system, these units provided incentives for their owners to maximize operating time, minimize downtime for repairs or retrofit, and minimize further capital investments in them.
Justifying large additional capital investments in plants which may have a remaining useful life of 10 years or less, absent reconstruction of boilers, is often difficult.
Further, because large coal-fired generating units tend to reach peak operating and combustion efficiencies during the first three years of operation, declining incrementally thereafter throughout their lifetimes, these old plants were among the dirtiest sources of air pollution in the electric utility industry.
Uncertainties[ edit ] Substantial uncertainties confronted electric utilities when planning compliance strategies. These included the future price and availability of fuels; the value of emissions allowances and operation of markets for them; the manner in which state public utilities commissions and the Internal Revenue Service would allocate the costs of scrubbing or switching fuels and the value of emissions allowances; accounting guidelines, revisions to interstate bulk power sales contracts, and possible intervention by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in interstate transfers of emissions allowances by multi-state holding companies.
Changes in the competitiveness of various generating and pollution control technologies; a myriad of new rule making actions required by the Clean Air Act; and the possibility of new legislation limiting emissions of carbon dioxide, imposing a tax on carbon emissions, or on Btu usage were also of great concern.
In this context, utility executives were required to make investment decisions committing millions of dollars over extended periods. As summarized by one utility manager: Innovations in coal supply contracts[ edit ] The risks associated with such uncertainty stimulated innovation in contracts for purchase of coal by electric utilities.
Under these agreements, the utility could elect to shift purchases from high-sulfur to low-sulfur coal produced by the same supplier.
The supplier retained the option of continuing to ship high-sulfur coal in lieu of low-sulfur coal if it provided sufficient emissions allowances so this coal could be burned without penalty.Online Plant Database contains over important rainforest medicinal plants including Copaiba - Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Copaifera reticulata.
Acid rain describes any form of precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. It can also occur in the form of snow, fog, and tiny bits of dry material that settle to Earth. Rotting. Formation of Acid Rain Introduction.
Rain is naturally acidic due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide forming weak carbonic acid. Acid rain refers to rain that has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than about M.
Acid rain occurs due to the dissolution of acidic oxides in the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is one such acidic oxide which is. Rain definition: Rain is water that falls from the clouds in small drops. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
The Acid Rain Program is a market-based initiative taken by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in an effort to reduce overall atmospheric levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which cause acid rain.
The program is an implementation of emissions trading that primarily targets coal-burning power plants, allowing them to . Sulphur - Test for sulphate ions.
When a solution thought to contain sulphate ions has a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid added to it followed by a few drops of barium chloride (aq) (BaCl 2(aq)), the formation of a white precipitate (barium sulphate, BaSO 4) indicates the presence of the sulphate ions..
A general equation for the important .