Print Key Info As you do your research, follow your background research plan and take notes from your sources of information. These notes will help you write a better summary. The purpose of your research paper is to give you the information to understand why your experiment turns out the way it does.
The Effects of Superinfection on Virulence. One control group contained only an avirulent virus on a grid, and the other contained only a virulent virus. The baseline superinfection experimental group contained both viruses on the same grid. Three other test groups included superinfection but varied either initial virulence, competition factor, or mutation rate compared to the superinfection baseline group.
Based on multiple simulation runs, the data from the controls and from test groups with different conditions were separately compared to those from the superinfection baseline group.
Results The computer simulation suggested that both viruses limited each other in superinfection since the virulences and transmissions in the control groups were higher those in superinfection.
Additionally, different conditions did impact virulence; lower initial virulence caused more variation in virulence, lower competitive asymmetry decreased virulence over time, and lower mutation rate led to quicker extinction of the virulent virus, greater leaps in average virulence, but more overall consistency in virulence.
However, the virulence of the avirulent strain increased without causing its extinction, most likely because its transmission was above some threshold.
The data suggest that virulence of one strain increases if initial transmission exceeds some threshold but decreases if below that threshold, especially with little competitive asymmetry, a high mutation rate, or an initial virulence that nearly maximizes the transmission.
Summary My computer simulation suggested that initial virulence, competitive asymmetry, and mutation rate help determine numerical outcomes of superinfection, but superinfection itself limits the virulence and transmission of all viruses involved.
Analyzing the Effects of L. Prebiotics, non-digestable food ingredients, are used to selectively stimulate the growth and activity of probiotics. The combination of the two is called synbiotics. To address the growing issue of weight control, this research focused on developing a probiotic treatment to induce weight loss in laboratory mice.
It was hypothesized that the probiotics will consume glucose in the GI tract to induce weight loss and the efficiency with which it does so will be enhanced by increased dosage and the addition of prebiotics. Lactulose was used as a prebiotic in conjunction with l.
Weight was monitored daily. Furthermore, the simulated stomach acid culture survived, covering a total area of about a third of that of control.
A chi-2 test for significance indicates that these differences are statistically significant. Mice weights show negative correlation for all treatment groups, indicating consistent weight loss.
Mice administered probiotics displayed similar results. In both treatments, increased dosage increased the rate of weight loss. There is, however, no statistically significant difference in weight lost between probiotic and synbiotic groups administered the same dose. Though prebiotic lactulose did not lead to greater weight loss, an increased dose of either treatment did.
Thus, while synbiotics have no added benefit, probiotics show promise as an effective approach to promoting weight control.
Summary This research tested the ability of probiotic bacteria to metabolize glucose in the GI tract to an extent that would induce weight loss and analyzed the effects of prebiotic lactulose in increasing the effectiveness of the probiotic dose.
The height of the tide implies a position of the sun and moon, because the tides are primarily caused by solar and lunar gravitational gradients.
We can then find the position of the moon and sun implied by visual evidence or an ephemeris. Any difference between the tidally implied and visually implied position of the sun and moon can be accounted for by a difference between the speed of light and the speed of gravity.
Results Our results indicate that gravity is exchanged nearly instantaneously. However, we would like to collect more data and run further error analyses to reduce our margin or error and increase our certainty.
We measured the speed of gravity the speed at which gravitational force is exchanged between two objects.
Plant Biology Priyanka V. The virus causes mottling of leaves, de-veining, and local lesions on the plant. The main goal of this project was to determine the effects of TMV on pinto bean plants after previous exposure to a weaker strain.
If a weak strain of TMV is inoculated into a susceptible or hypersensitive host host, then the host will become more resistant to the common strain after inoculation. Due to naturally occurring cell-by-cell defenses within the plant, the host will develop immunity to the common strain after being exposed to an initial weaker strain.
Then, for the plants that were inoculated with the diluted and heated strain of TMV, after exactly five days, the same plants were inoculated with the stock solution of TMV. The effects of TMV were measured by counting the number of local lesion per leaf. The plants that were inoculated with an initial weaker strain had significantly less lesions than those inoculated with the stock solution of TMV.
When the plant is exposed to an initial weaker strain of TMV, it develops resistance to the virus due to salicylic acid.
Salicylic acid aids in plant defense by signaling pathogenesis related proteins, and is only synthesized by local lesions.
Thus, the plant only developed resistance after exposure to an initial weaker strain.This table describes how to format your research paper using either the MLA or APA guidelines. Be sure to follow any additional instructions that your teacher provides.
Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (), and A Framework for K–12 Science Education (), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed.
Sample MLA Formatted Paper. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, ). that was about four times as high as that among the same drivers when they were not using stop for a school bus, and drunk driving are obvious examples;.
Research Paper Archives. These research papers were submitted by high school teams participating in the Alaska regional competition of the National Ocean Sciences Bowl. Entrust your science research paper or dissertation to a professional in the required field. Buy custom science papers that will guide you through the writing process.
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If these reasons sound to you like the reasons we gave for doing background research, you're right! The research paper is simply the "write-up" of that research. Special Information to Include in Your Research Paper. Many science experiments can be explained using mathematics.
How to Format Your Research Paper. Here is .